Engaging Farmers in Climate Change Adaptation Planning Assessing Intercropping as a Means to Support Farm Adaptive Capacity

Scientists assess the benefits of intercropping as a climate change adaptation solution on the farm. Farmers in this study positively reflected on the adoptability and feasibility of intercropping as a management strategy.

Himanen SJ, Makinen H, Rimhanen K, and R Savikko
Agriculture, 6(3),34 2016 Journal Article

Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates? Invited Review

This review from the Journal of Dairy Science provides an analysis of the successful adaptation mechanisms of warm climate dairy cattle breeds.

Berman, A.
Journal of Dairy Science 2011 Journal Article

USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hubs Vulnerability Assessment

This report provides an in-depth look at the vulnerability of the Midwest to the impacts of climate change as well as adaptation and mitigation strategies to combat these impacts.

Hatfield J, Swanston C, Janowiak M, and Steele RF
USDA 2015 Report

Climate Change Adaptation in United States Federal Natural Resource Science and Management Agencies A Synthesis

The Adaptation Science Interagency Working Group divulges information on USDA governing documents and how the USDA is adapting to climate change.

Halofsky JE, Peterson DL, and KW Marcinkowski
US Global Change Research Program 2015 Journal Article

Assessing climate vulnerabilities and adaptive strategies for resilient beef and dairy operations in

This report addresses environmental modification, nutrition management, and genetic modification as adaptation strategies for dairy and beef cattle.

Colon OG
Climatic Change https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2110-1 2018 Journal Article

Chapter 5: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Animal Production Systems. In Quantifying

This chapter provides guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with entity‐level fluxes from animal production systems

Powers W, Auvermann B, Cole A, Gooch C, et al.
U.S. Department of Agriculture 2014 Chapter

Potential use of milk urea nitrogen to abate atmospheric nitrogen emissions from Wisconsin dairy far

This study evaluates how associative changes in dietary crude protein, milk urea nitrogen, and urinary urea nitrogen affect atmospheric nitrogen emissions from dairy farms while discussing challenges and opportunities

Powell JM, Rotz CA, and Wattiaux MA
Journal of Environmental Quality 2014 Journal Article

Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Flux from Agricultural Soils Using Static Chamber

This paper discusses the most prevalent and easily implemented form of chamber-based techniques used to measure GHG emissions

Collier SM, Ruark MD, Oates LG, Jokela WE, et al.
Journal of Visualized Experiments 2014 Journal Article

Nitrogen- vs. Phosphorus-Based Manure and Compost Management of Corn

This study evaluates the impact of a change from N-based application of manure and compost without incorporation to a P-based (crop-removal) management system with immediate incorporation of manure on corn silage yield and quality, and (ii) soil nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings Q, Godwin GS and Czymmek KJ
Agronomy Journal 2016 Journal Article

Soil properties under nitrogen- vs phosphorus-based manure and compost management of corn

This study evaluates the influence of a change from N-based applications of manure and compost (without incorporation) to P-removal-based management of manure (immediate tillage incorporation) and composted separated dairy solids on soil pH, soil organic matter and soil carbon

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Vermeylen F, Godwin GS, et al
Soil Science Society of America Journal 2016 Journal Article

Gas emissions from dairy barnyards

This study determines impacts of surfaces materials and dairy cattle corralling on gas flux from constructed barnyards

Powell JM and Vadas PA
Animal Production Science 2016 Journal Article

Data: Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ammonia Emissions from Digested and Separated Manure


Holly M, Larson RA, Powell JM, Ruark MD, et al.
Ag Data Commons 2016 Popular Media

Potential for Reducing On-Farm Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cows with Prolonged

This study explores the effects of long-term condensed tannin (Quebracho and chestnut extracts) addition to dairy cow diets on enteric methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia emissions from manure.

Duval BD, Aguerre M, Wattiaux M, Vadas PA, et al.
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 2016 Journal Article

Does plant biomass manipulation in static chambers affect nitrous oxide emissions from soils?

This study seeks to understand how or whether plant biomass manipulation affects N2O emissions estimated as part of chamber-based GHG measurements by examining the effects of biomass cutting vs. folding on N2O emissions in perennial switchgrass and alfalfa cropping systems.

Collier SM, Dean AP, Oates LG, Ruark MD, et al.
Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 Journal Article

Long-term tillage, rotation and perennialization effects on particulate and aggregate soil organic

This study investigates how management varying in crop rotation, tillage intensity and organic management from 1990 to 2013 has affected particulate organic matter and aggregate carbon and nitrogen, and assess the relationship between these soil organic matter fractions and biomass carbon input

Cates AM, Ruark MD, Hedtcke JL, and Posner JL
Soil and Tillage Research 2016 Journal Article

Data: Manure application methods for alfalfa-grass


Sherman, Jessica; Jokela, William; Barford, Carol. 2017.
Ag Data Commons 2017 Popular Media

Data: Low-Disturbance Manure Incorporation


Sherman J, Jokela W, and Bardford C
Ag Data Commons 2017 Journal Article

Data from: Gas emissions from dairy barnyards

Database on GHG emissions from dairy barnyards

Powell JM, Vadas, PA, and Barford C
Ag Data Commons 2017 Popular Media

Comparison of process-based models to quantify nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions associate

This study uses a whole-farm mass-balance approach to compare five process-based models in terms of predicted carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus flows and potential global warming impact

Veltman K. Jones CD, Gaillard R, Cela S, et al.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2017 Journal Article

Under- or over-application of nitrogen impact corn yield, quality, soil, and environment

This study conducts a 5 year study to determine the impact of N fertilizer on corn silage yield, quality, soil properties, farm economics, and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE)

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Godwin GS, and Czymmek KJ
Agronomy Journal 2017 Journal Article

Shifting from N-based to P-based manure management maintains soil test phosphorus dynamics in a long

This study evaluates corn fertility management change from N-based applications of manure and compost to a P removal based management of manure and composted separated dairy solids on soil P dynamics over a 5-year corn and 5-year alfalfa rotation

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Godwin G, and Czymmek KJ
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 2017 Journal Article

Agro-environmental consequences of shifting from nitrogen- to phosphorus-based manure management of

This study evaluates the influence of a corn fertility management change from N-based applications of manure and separated dairy solids to a P-removal-based management of manure

Sadeghpour A, Ketterings QM, Vermeylen F, Godwin GS, et al.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 2017 Journal Article

Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components feed

This study quantifies soil N input incorporation into the major diet components fed to dairy cows, diet component N secretions in milk N and excretion in manure N constituents, and manure N recycled back through the feed supply

Powell JM, Barros T, Danes M, Aguerre M, et al.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2017 Journal Article

Simulating microbial denitrification with EPIC: Model description and evaluation

This paper describes a process-based microbial denitrification submodel implemented in EPIC and tests and tests its ability to reproduce experimental data exhibiting a non-linear response of N2O fluxes to incremental rates of N application

Izaurralde CR, McGill WB, Williams JR, Jones CD et al.
Ecological Modeling 2017 Journal Article

Managing Manure Nitrogen to Reduce Losses

This fact sheet describes different manure management strategies to minimize nitrogen loss while mitigating harmful emissions

Aguirre-Villegas HA, Larson RA, and Ruark MD
UW-Extension Learning Store 2018 Fact Sheet

Dairy Cow Nitrogen Efficiency

This fact sheet highlights one of the main strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrogen loss through urine excretion by reducing the ingestion of crude protein, which must be done with caution to avoid underfeeding

Aguirre-Villegas HA, Wattiaux, M, Larson R, Chase L, et al.
UW-Extension Learning Store 2018 Fact Sheet

Effects of Manure Storage Additives on Manure Composition and Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions

This study explores the effects of manure additives, i.e., Pro-Act Biotech (Pro-Act), and biochar, on stored manure and quantifies their effects on manure solids, nitrogen losses, and GHG emissions in two separate trails

Holly MA and Larson RA
Transactions of the ASABE 2017 Journal Article

Evaluating GHG and ammonia emissions from digested and separated manure through storage and land app

This study keeps track of GHG and ammonia emissions of raw, separated, and digested dairy manure during storage and land application

Holly MA, Larson RA, Powell M, Ruark M, Aguirre-Villegas HA
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2017 Journal Article

Soil aggregate and particulate C and N under corn rotations: responses to management and correlation

This study describes the aggregate and particulate soil C and N in a productive Mollisol under three annual grain systems and investigates the correlations across rotations

Cates AM and Ruark MD
Plant and Soil 2017 Journal Article

Evaluating GHG emissions from dairy manure management practices using survey data and lifecycle tool

Conducts a survey of dairy farms in Wisconsin and analyzes their manure management practices based on farm size and their related GHG, ammonia emissions and energy consumption

Aguirre-Villegas HA and Larson RA
Journal of Cleaner Production 2017 Journal Article

Manure Agitation

Fact sheet describing the process, technologies, and emissions related to manure agitation.

2017 Fact Sheet

Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator

Did you ever wonder what reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 1 million metric tons means in everyday terms? The greenhouse gas equivalencies calculator can help you understand just that, translating abstract measurements into concrete terms you can understand, such as the annual emissions from cars, households, or power plants. This calculator may be useful in communicating your greenhouse gas reduction strategy, reduction targets, or other initiatives aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

EPA 2008 Web Page

Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows: Accounting Techniques

Sustainable Dairy 2017 Fact Sheet

Pasture diversification to combat climate change impacts on grazing dairy production

Four cool-season grass species and two legumes were evaluated under both current and future climate scenarios to identify the best pasture composition for a representative grazing dairy farm in Michigan in order to reduce the impacts of climate change on production.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2017 Journal Article

Resource use and economic impacts in the transition from small confinement to pasture-based dairies

Compares the farm performance and economic impacts of five representative dairy farms in Michigan transitioning from conventional confinement to seasonal- and pasture-based systems, and evaluates the potential for integration of an anaerobic digester in the confinement and seasonal pasture systems. Results show confinement systems had higher milk production per kilogram of feed, followed by the seasonal pasture and the annual pasture systems. But the annual pasture-based system had the greatest net economic return to management and unpaid factors followed by the seasonal pasture and confinement systems.

Agricultural Systems 2017 Journal Article

Life Cycle and Economic Assessment of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Dairy Manure and Food Waste

A comprehensive life cycle and financial analysis shows anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and food wastes is a preferable solution for waste management and bioenergy production in terms of environmental and economic performance when compared to a control system that anaerobically digests dairy manure but landfills food wastes.

Industrial Biotechnology 2015 Journal Article

Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector.

Climate Risk Management 2017 Journal Article

Considerations for 2017 Cover Crop Interseeding

Cover crop establishment following wheat, silage corn, and canning crops can be relatively easy. Corn and soybean production practices allow for a short window for cover crop establishment in the fall and this may not be enough time for some cover crop species to establish and provide agronomic benefits.

Daniel H. Smith and Matt Ruark
Nutrient and Pest Management Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison 2017 Web Page

Carbon and water footprint of U.S. milk, from farm to table

The Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy with support from the Dairy Research Institute has begun a rigorous, innovative, life cycle assessment-based program to study and reduce the environmental footprint of the U.S. dairy industry.

Miller, G.D. and Y. Wang
International Dairy Journal 2013 Journal Article

Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA

A life cycle assessment was conducted to determine a baseline for environmental impacts of cheddar and mozzarella cheese consumption. Product loss/waste, as well as consumer transport and storage, is included. The study scope was from cradle-to-grave with particular emphasis on unit operations under the control of typical cheese-processing plants.

Kim Daesoo, Greg Thoma et al.
Int J Life Cycle Assess 2013 Journal Article

Life cycle environmental assessment of yogurt production and consumption in the USA

Estimated impacts in various unit processes (milk production, processing, packaging, transport, retail, and consumption) including product losses at each stage are reported and discussed.

Y. Wang, G. Thoma, D. Kim and J. Burek
Journal of Animal Science Dairy Foods Division Symposium: Advances in Sustainability within the Dairy Processing Industry 2016 Journal Article

Spatial Variability and Uncertainty of Water Use Impacts from U.S. Feed and Milk Production

This paper addresses water use impacts of agriculture, developing a spatially explicit approach tracing the location of water use and water scarcity related to feed production, transport, and livestock, tracking uncertainties and illustrating the approach with a case study on dairy production in the United States. This approach was developed as a step to bring spatially variable production and impacts into a process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) context.

Andrew D. Henderson, Olivier Jolliet et al.
Environmental Science and Technology 2017 Journal Article

Environmental/Ecological Impact of the Dairy Sector

A literature review on dairy products for an inventory of key issues.

International Dairy Federation Brussels, Belgium 2009 Report

System expansion and allocation in life cycle assessment of milk and beef production

Energy statistics are reported to monitor changes in energy production and use, inform debate, and provide a wider understanding of energy.

Cederberg, C., and M. Stadig
International JEnergy Agency 2017 Report

Penn State Dairy Production and Management Online Course

In this free eight-week online course, you will gain a broad and comprehensive understanding of all aspects of dairy management such as genetics, nutrition, reproduction, animal health, farm economics, and sustainability of dairy production systems. There’s something here for everyone whether you are just looking for the basics or have years of experience in the dairy industry.

Penn State University 2015 Web Page

Reducing Risks from Manure Storage Agitation Gases

Discusses risks to human and animal health related to hazardous manure gases from outdoor or confined space manure storages on dairy farms and recommended safety practices.

Sustainable Dairy 2017 Fact Sheet

Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Manure Management Systems

Describes manure storage, processing, and land application strategies that may decrease dairy farm greenhouse gas emissions.

Sustainable Dairy 2017 Fact Sheet

Mitigation of Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows

Enteric methane is a major contributor to global and U.S. agricultural GHG emissions and can represent 50% of a dairy farm’s GHG emissions. This fact sheet describes nutrition, feed, and management strategies to reduce methane emissions.

Sustainable Dairy 2017 Fact Sheet

Got pasture? How grazing intensity affects the environmental impacts of dairy systems

A Wisconsin dairy farm was modeled to evaluate greenhouse gas emissions, net energy intensity, and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process.

Aguirre-Villegas HA, Passos-Fonseca TH, Reinemann DJ, and Larson RA
J. Dairy Sci. 2017 Journal Article

Replacing Commercial Sidedress Nitrogen with Liquid Livestock Manure on Emerged Corn

Livestock producers can more fully utilize the nutrients in livestock manure to reduce purchased fertilizer costs if they can apply manure when crops need the nutrients.

Richer, et. al.
Waste to Worth eXtension.org 2017 Publication

Greenhouse gas emissions from milk production and consumption in the United States A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment circa 2008

This article presents a cradle-to-grave analysis of the United States fluid milk supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are accounted from fertilizer production through consumption and disposal of milk packaging.

Thoma, et. al.
International Dairy Journal 2012 Publication

LCA of bioenergy chains in Piedmont (Italy) A case study to support public decision makers towards sustainability

Given the booming of bioenergy plants under construction in Piedmont, in Northern Italy, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used in order to assist public decision-makers during the evaluation of new bioenergy projects.

Blengini, et. al.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2011 Publication

Green cheese Partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy productionbioenergy systems

Evaluating the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Aguirre-Villegas, HA, Passos-Fonseca TH, Reinemann DJ, Armentano LE, et al.
J. Dairy Sci. 2015 Journal Article

Decreasing enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a methane inhibitor on enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows. The experiment demonstrated that, under industry-relevant conditions, the inhibitor persistently decreased by 30% enteric methane emissions, without negatively affecting animal productivity.

Hristov, et. al.
PNAS 2015 Publication

From waste-to-worth: energy, emissions, and nutrient implications of manure processing pathways

Four manure processing pathways are evaluated to provide a system-level understanding of their impacts on different sustainability indicators. In particular we look at how solid-liquid separation, anaerobic digestion, and AD+SLS affect depletion of fossil fuels, nutrient balances, global warming potential, and ammonia emissions when compared to the base-case pathway of direct land application.

Aguirre-Villegas, et. al.
SCI 2014 Publication

No-till climate mitigation Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation

No-till is beneficial for soil quality and adaptation of agriculture to climate change, but its role in mitigation is widely overstated.

Powlson, et. al.
Nature Climate Change 2014 Publication

Apparent Stability and Subtle Change in Surface and Subsurface Soil Carbon and Nitrogen under a Long Surface and Subsurface Soil Carbon and Nitrogen under a Long-Term Fertilizer Gradient

Uncertainty exists regarding the depth and extent to which agricultural practices affect soil properties, in particular soil organic C (SOC). In this study we examined the impact of 53 years of continuous corn receiving varying rates of inorganic N fertilizer with complete stover return on soil properties including SOC, total N, and bulk density (BD) to a depth of 1 meter.

Collier, SM, Ruark MD, Naber MR, Andraski TW et al.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2017 Journal Article

Land, irrigation water, GHG, and reactive N burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the U.S.

Quantifying the land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal based categories in the US diet.

Eshel, et. al.
PNAS 2014 Publication

Carbon footprint of milk production LCA method used to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

O'Brien, et. al.
J. Dairy Sci. 2014 Publication

Enteric methane in dairy cattle production Quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions

Discusses opportunities to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock.

Knapp, et. al.
J. Dairy Sci. 2014 Fact Sheet

U.S. Dairy’s Environmental Footprint A summary of findings, 2008-2012

Dairy’s environmental footprint is being measured by independent researchers on behalf of the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy®, which was established by dairy producers. This report summarizes the body of environmental research conducted from 2008 to 2012.

Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy
2013 Publication

Report of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools for Agriculture and Forestry Sectors Interim report to USDA under Contract No. GS23F8182H

This report provides an overview of publically accessible tools (calculators, protocols, guidelines and models) for quantifying GHG emissions/offsets from agricultural and forestry activities, with a focus on farm/entity/project-level GHG accounting tools. Information contained in this report draws upon publically available information obtained through an extensive literature and web-search, as well as from direct contact with experts.

Denef, et. al.
2012 Publication

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies

Hertwich et. al.
2014 Publication

Solid-Liquid Separation of Manure

Sustainable Dairy 2016 Fact Sheet

Dairy Anaerobic Digestion Systems

Sustainable Dairy 2016 Fact Sheet

Methane Emissions from Dairy Cattle

Sustainable Dairy Fact Sheet

Nitrogen management on dairy farms

Presents background information and management guidelines for use of N including: crop and soil management, feed storage, herd N management, and manure storage N management

Cornell Extension USA / NY Fact Sheet

Estimating manure N availability Module 2. Manure Nitrogen

Presents the basics to estimate manure N availability including: different types of manure N, application timing and method, N available from manure

Cornell Extension USA / NY Fact Sheet

Calculating N efficiency Module 1. N efficiency

Presents a method to calculate N requirements for corn (including losses and N efficiencies)

Cornell Extension USA / NY Fact Sheet

The N Cycle Module 1. The N cycle

Presents the N cycle in an interactive way and the major conversion processes: fixation, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, and immobilization. Also presents nitrate leaching and crop uptake

Cornell Extension USA / NY Fact Sheet

N cycle Soil N cycle

Provides a basic description and diagran of the N cycle in soils (oriented mainly to crops)

Iowa State USA / IA 2012 Fact Sheet

Tillage No-tillage impacts on soil carbon, nitrogen, and water

Describes the advantages and disadvantages of tillage (including N loss)

Iowa State USA / IA 2012 Fact Sheet

Cover crops Cover crops

Present a general description of the role of cover crops in nutrient recycling

Iowa State USA / IA 2012 Fact Sheet

Cover crops basics Managing cover crops: Cover crops for modern cropping systems

This publication is an introduction to cover crops — it describes cover crop benefits, how to select appropriate covers, common seeding methods, and how to terminate them

Purdue USA / IN 2015 Fact Sheet

cover crops rotations Sustainable crop rotations with cover crops

Presents information about specific attributes of different cover crops grown after each cash crop and for specific purposes (e.g. for nitrogen)

Hoorman et al.
Ohio State USA / OH 2009 Fact Sheet

Cover crops Cover crop fundamentals

Presents the basic description of cover crops

Sundermeier et al
Ohio State USA / OH 2016 Fact Sheet

Nitrogen cycle Soil and applied nitrogen

Present the basics of N fixation, reactions in the soil, N loss mechanisms, sources of N, and environmental effects

UW Madison USA / WI 1998 Fact Sheet

Nitrogen, ammonia emissions and the dairy cow

Explains how nitrogen fed to cows contributes to ammonia emissions and explores feeding strategies to reduce excess nitrogen in the diet.

Penn State Fact Sheet

Lowered protein diets to reduce nitrogen losses

Presents a description of how low can we go on lowered protein content diets without affecting milk production in order to improve nitrogen efficiency and reduce nitrogen losses from manure.

Penn State 2014 Fact Sheet

N2O emissions from field crops Management of N fertilizer to reduce N2O emissions from field crops (E3152)

Presents a general description of N2O and four main factors to help reduce N2O emissions from field crops: N application rate, fertilizer type, timing of application, placement.

Millar et al
Michigan State USA / MI 2014 Fact Sheet

Shifting climate and manure management Shifting climate requires smart manure management

Presents smarter manure management strategies to respond to a changing climate (more precipitations in the Midwest)

University of Minnesota USA / MN 2014 Fact Sheet

Global methane emissions Global methane emissions and mitigation opportunities

Presents sources of CH4 emissions and how do they contribute to total GHG emissions. Also, presents some projections and mitigation strategies for each sector

Global methane initiative Global Fact Sheet

Compost quality Improving and maintaining compost quality

Presents some of the factors that can be management by the farmer and that affect compost quality (e.g. type of equipment, frequency of turning, and composting method)

Harrison et al
Cornell USA / NY 2004 Fact Sheet

Anaerobic digestion Basics of energy production through anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

Presents the basics of AD including the process, the paramenters of different feedstocks, technologies, benefits of AD

Lleleji et al
Purdue USA / IN 2008 Fact Sheet

N2O emissions from crops Research Shows Soybeans Provide Consistent Reduction in Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Provides findings that soybean crops reduce field emissions of nitrous oxide

Iowa State USA / IA 2014 Fact Sheet

Tillage and cover crops Using cover crops to convert to no-till

Presents the benefits of using cover crops to migrate to a no-till system, the nitrogen recycling process that takes place

Hoorman et al.
Ohio State USA / OH 2009 Fact Sheet

Cover crops Considerations for cover crops in 2012

Present some considerations to use or not cover crops including trapping nitrate and getting N back

Matt Ruark
UW Madison USA / WI 2012 Fact Sheet

Ammonia emissions in dairy farms and fields Abating ammonia emissions from dairy barns and fields

Presents strategies to reduce ammonia emissions in manure and from the soil after manure application

USDA / UW Madison USA / WI Fact Sheet

MUN can track ammonia emissions on dairy farms Easy does it with manure on alfalfa and grass

Explains how MUN can be use to measure the extend of ammonia emissions that escape into the environment in dairy production facilities

USDA / UW Madison USA / WI 2011 Fact Sheet

N emissions from dairy farms Using MUN to reduce N emissions from dairy farms

Explains how Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) can be used to reduce nitrogen emissions from dairy farms. Present a great graphic description of the N cycle in the cow

USDA / UW Madison USA / WI 2014 Fact Sheet

Soil management Climate change and soil management in field crops

Presents ways of managing the soil to reduce CO2 and N2O.

Steinke and Snapp
Michigan State USA / MI 2013 Fact Sheet

Diet strategies to reduce amounts of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in dairy rations

Presents strategies to balance rations and group and feed animals according to their nutrient needs.

Virginia Tech 2009 Fact Sheet

N Basics - the N cycle N Basics - The nitrogen cycle (Fact sheet #2)

N, crops and the environment; N cycle; fixation; mineralization; nitrification; denitrification; volatilization; immovilization; leaching; crop uptake

Johnson et al.
Cornell Extension USA / NY 2005 Fact Sheet